Singapore Goods and Services Tax (GST) Guide
The introduction of Goods and Services Tax Singapore on April 1, 1994 marked the beginning of a new era of tax system in Singapore. GST is basically the tax levied by the government of Singapore on all the import of goods into Singapore and the supplies of goods and services in the country. As of 2013, GST in Singapore stands at 7%.
Goods and Service Tax (GST), also known as Value-Added Tax (VAT) in a few countries, is a new type of tax system in Singapore. The authority of GST in Singapore is with IRAS (Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore). GST was introduced with the aim of reducing the burden of corporate and personal tax income rates. At the same time, it maintains a steady flow of revenue for the government. GST stands at the rate of 7% in Singapore.
What is GST?
Goods and service tax Singapore is a consumption tax that is levied on mainly the supply of goods and services in Singapore. It is also levied on import of goods in Singapore. It is an indirect tax, which is expressed as a percentage. In Singapore, GST is levied at the rate of 7% of the selling price of goods and services. GST is always paid by the end-user, which means it does not become a cost to the company. Businesses just act as the tax collecting agents on behalf of Singaporean government.
GST for a Singapore Company
If a company is GST registered, then they have to charge 7% extra from their customers. For example – if a company charges S$100 for a service in Singapore, then they will have to charge S$107. This GST amount collected from the customers then has to be passed on the tax authorities. All Singapore companies are required to file GST Singapore tax returns on a quarterly basis.
Goods and Services Tax: To Register or Not
GST registration is more of a self-assessed process. The companies need to constantly assess the parameters, and register for GST Singapore whenever applicable. They can also opt for GST as a matter of choice even when they do not fall into the registering specifications. For the matter of convenience, GST registration falls in two categories – compulsory and voluntary.
It becomes compulsory for the businesses to register for GST when –
- The turnover of the business has been more than 1 million SGD for the last 12 months
- Expected turnover of the business will be more than 1 million SGD for the next 12 months
A company can register itself for voluntarily for GST when –
- The annual turnover of the business has not been more than 1 million SGD
- The supply of goods is done out of Singapore
- Exempt supply of financial services is made which is also deemed as international services
Voluntary GST registration Singapore provides the benefits of claiming input tax incurred in the course of the business. This remains especially true in case of zero-rated supplies. If in the case, a business only provides zero-rated supplies, they can opt for exemption from registering for GST. Even when the turnover exceeds the registration cut-offs.
Companies can even opt out of GST registration. However, this can happen only when the said business stops or is old-off to another person. Secondly, when the sales figure dip to less than 1 million SGD. The businesses are required to submit an application form along with other relevant documents.
The money paid as Singapore GST to the suppliers can offset the money collected as GST from the customers. What the business collects from the customer is known as output tax, and what it gives to its suppliers is known as input tax. Therefore, what the business pays or claims back from the authorities is the difference between the output and input tax.
Pros and Cons of Registering for GST
PROS – For the Government:
- GST ensures a stable and predictable inflow of revenue, which is very important for the weak economies especially.
- Administration and collection of GST Singapore is relatively easy, which makes it a efficient tax system
- Introduction of GST eventually brings about a reduction in the rates of corporate and personal taxes. This in turn promotes an environment for foreign direct investment.
For Businesses and Individuals:
The registration requirements for Singapore GST, makes only bigger companies participate in the registration process. This implies that if a company is registered for GST, its customers perceive that the company has certain size.
- GST is fair tax system, which only taxes people when they spend their money.
- GST is levied on consumption or utilization of services. Savings and investment do not come under GST’s influence.
- GST brings about a decrease in the cost of doing business, because the real taxpayer is the end-user.
GST registration Singapore brings in additional duties and responsibilities, which calls for extra administration duties.
- An accountant needs to be hired to understand the intricacies of GST.
- If a supplier is GST registered, his selling price will increase by 7%. However, if his customer is not GST registered, the he will have to pay the extra amount, and will not be able to claim it. This can prove harmful for the supplier, since he might lose a customer.
- Lower income groups are the ones who get burdened by the 7% price-hike, in these times of inflation.
Types of Goods and Services Subjected to GST
GST is always charged on taxable supplies. Taxable supplies imply those goods and services that are made in, or imparted from Singapore. These taxable supplies fall into two categories, standard rated and zero-rated. The goods and services sold locally fall under the umbrella of standard-rated supplies. While those that are exported fall under zero-rated supplies. The manufacturer of export goods is able to claim the input tax levied on purchase of inputs.
The other category on which Singapore GST is not charged is the exempt supplies category. Namely, sale and lease of residential land and financial services are the ones, which are exempt from GST. The main difference between the zero-rated supplies and the exempt supplies is that the exempt supplies cannot claim the input tax.
Last are the out-of-scope supplies. These are the supplies, which are out of scope of the GST. The ones included in the out-of-scope supplies are the ones who –
- Carry out private transactions
- Carry out sales of goods outside Singapore to a another place outside Singapore
- Carry out sales within zero-GST warehouse
Process of GST Registration Singapore
There are various types of forms that need to be filled by the companies, who want to be registered for Singapore GST. GST F1 is a form that should be duly filled, and sent to the tax authorities. If the business entities comprise of partnerships, an additional form (GST F3) should be provided. This would give the details of all partners involved in running the business.
Similarly, different types of forms are available for overseas companies, group registration, and divisional registration. The companies that are overseas have to appoint a local agent, who will act on their behalf. Such registrants must include a letter along with the application form, which states the same.
It takes around 3 weeks to complete the registration process. After the company gets successfully registered for GST, they will receive a ‘notification of GST registration’ letter. This letter would include all the details like the GST registration number, the filing frequency, and filing due dates as well as other instructions. GST filing should be done electronically.
The Process of Payment, Charging and Implementing GST
- A GST registered entity can charge GST, to only those goods and services that are supplied locally.
- The GST amount gathered has to be duly transferred to the IRAS.
- The GST amount can be charged on top of the selling price, or can be included in the price as GST-inclusive.
- When quoting a price, the trader always use GST-inclusive. This should remain valid for all prices displayed, advertised, published, and quoted verbally or in writing. If the trader fails to do so, he may charged a penalty. On the other hand, for Singapore GST charged to the F&B industry i.e. on the service charge, prices displayed can be GST-exclusive.
- If a GST registered entity bills other GST registered entity, a proper tax invoice should be issued. This invoice can be used by the payer entity to claim the input tax on standard-rated purchases.
- The tax invoices should be should be retained by both the entities, at least for a period of 5 years.
- In case a tax invoice is not issued to the payer, at least a printed and duly signed bill should be issued when a payment is made.
- Proper input tax claims for the accounting period according to the date of the tax invoice or import permits, should be made.
Process of Filing GST Returns
GST F5 needs to be submitted to the tax authorities based on the accounting cycle. It is normally done on a quarterly basis. The return documents should contain all the information such as total value of your local sales, exports, and purchases from GST registered entities, the GST collected and GST claimed for that accounting period.
Electronic GST filing is accepted nowadays. Once a company submits its GST F5, the nest GST return will be made available at the end of each accounting period. E filing of GST can be done one day after the accounting period ends. However, care should be taken that IRAS receives the return no later than one month after the end of the prescribed accounting period.
Even if there is not tax due for a given period, a ‘nil’ return must be submitted. Late fees or penalties will be imposed if an entity fails to file the Singapore GST return late. This remains valid, regardless of whether the net GST declared is a payable or refundable amount. GST refunds are usually made within 30 days from the date of receipt of the return.
Various Singapore GST Schemes to Help Businesses
- Major Exporter Scheme (MES): It helps to ease the cash flow of major exporters having considerable imports.
- Cash Accounting Scheme (CAS): To ease the cash flow of small businesses with the annual turnover under S$1 million.
- Goods and Services Tax Assistance Scheme: For small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) voluntarily registering for GST Singapore.
- Third Party Logistics Scheme: The approved third parties need not pay GST, as they are providing logistic services to foreign clients, who thereby use Singapore for logistics purposes.
- Hand Carried Exports Scheme: Permits you to avoid GST by hand carrying the goods out of Singapore via Changi International Airport.
- Zero-GST Warehouse Scheme: This will make your zero GST warehouses, approved by the Singapore customs department for the storage of non-dutiable goods, free of Goods and Services Tax.
- Tourist Refund Scheme: This scheme permits tourists to claim a refund on the GST paid by them at the time of the goods they purchased in Singapore.
- Approved Contract Manufacturer and Trader (ACMT) Scheme – In this, the entities cannot charge GST when instructed by an overseas customer to deliver your finished goods to his customers in Singapore.
- Approved Marine Fuel trader (MFT) Scheme – In this scheme, an entity is not required to pay GST on purchase of marine fuel oil from a local GST registered supplier.
At Singapore taxation services, we provide you with guidance and assistance services on the, GST calculation, GST form completion formalities and monthly/quarterly GST returns to IRAS. We thrive to make your GST Singapore registration process simple and convenient.
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